Child development and milestones: Your 5-years-5-months-old

Child development and milestones: Your 5-years-5-months-old

Is your child on track?

Isn’t it amazing what your 5 years 5 months old child continues to achieve? His growth and development over the course of a few years are amazing!

Now, here are the specific milestones that your 5 years 5 months old child should be reaching at this stage. If you find that they are reaching these milestones a little late, you shouldn’t worry too much, as children tend to develop at their own pace.

5 years 5 months old child development and milestones: Is your child on track?

5 years 5 months old

Physical development

At 5 years 5 months old, your child’s fine and gross motor skills are a lot more refined than a few months ago. His/her hand-eye coordination is good and balancing skills have improved in leaps and bounds.

By now, your child’s median height and weight* should be as follows:

  • Boys
    – Height: 111.9 cm (44.1 inches)
    – Weight: 19.4 kg (42.8 lb)
  • Girls
    – Height: 110.9 cm (43.7 inches)
    – Weight: 19 kg (41.8 lb)

What other signs of physical development will kids of this age show?

  • They can confidently eat with all kinds of cutlery and
  • Your kid can hold pens and pencils correctly.
  • They catch a ball throw at them from a short distance without dropping it.
  • He/she has better coordination with their legs and arms.
  • They can hop from leg to leg without falling over like much younger children.

Tips:

  • Encourage your child to to write, colour and draw more as a way of further honing fine motor skills.
  •  Physical activity should increase at this point, so reduce screen time and allow your child to play outdoors.
  • If your child shows an aptitude for any sport, enrolling him or her in it will aid growth and development even more.

When to talk to your doctor

  • If your child still stumbles when he runs.
  • He/she cannot balance on one leg.
  • If he/she cannot grasp eating utensils or writing materials.
  • When your child cannot seem to hear or see properly
  • If he/she loses skills he/she once had.

Cognitive Development

Your little one is probably in pre-school now, and he's arming himself with the cognitive skills needed to tackle school.

Cognitive development in your 5 years 5 months old child up to now will showcase his ability to reason and think. At this stage of development, your child will become curious enough to seek out answers by himself.  This could mean more questions directed your way, with each answer leading to even more questions!

Look out for the following cognitive developments in your child.

  • Uses reason and may argue to prove a point
  • Follows simple directions.
  • Has an understanding of right and wrong.
  • Counts to at least 20
  • Knows his alphabet.
  • May know how to spell his name.
  • Can correctly identify colours and shapes.
  • Remembers events from the past.

Tips:

  • When your child argues with you, engage him further by asking his to explain his stance
  • Buy STEAM (Science, Tech, Engineering, Arts, Maths) toys like blocks and puzzles to further hone your child's cognitive skills.
  • Visit the museum, zoo, and other interesting places to encourage learning outside the classroom.
  • Play I Spy with your child. This game encourages your child's thinking skills and also promotes speech and literacy.

When to talk to your doctor

If your child

  • Shows little or no interest in his surroundings
  • Cannot count up to 20 or does not know the alphabet

5 years and 5 months old

Social and Emotional Development

Your 5 years 5 months old child is the life of the party! Chatty and friendly, your child is all out to please everyone, especially you.

Keep an eye out for these developments:

  • Your child will show empathy to others. He'll know when he's hurt someone’s feelings and when to make amends.
  • While he's much more independent now, your child still needs your love and comfort and will run to you often for these.
  • Your child might be bossy when playing with friends.
  • Your child might prefer to play with kids of his/her own gender.
  • He loves the company of friends, but sometimes likes alone-time too.
  • Is very friendly, even with strangers.
  • May lie or tell tales.
  • Has a sense of humour.

Tips

  • If you encounter your child lying to you or telling tales, don't shame him. Both occurrences are indicative of his cognitive development. Talk to your child about why it's not nice to lie or tell tales.
  • Teach your child about stranger danger.
  • Give your child plenty of love and cuddles for good emotional health.
  • Organise play dates for your child and his friends.

When to talk to your doctor

  • If your child
  • Is withdrawn, shy or unwilling to interact with others
  • Doesn’t exhibit or understand a wide range of emotions
  • Behaves erratically or is prone to violent behavior

5 years and 5 months old

Speech and language development

Your 5 years and 5 months old child can now speak using simple, clear sentences. Here are a few common milestones to look out for.

  • Your child's speech is easily understood, even by a stranger.
  • He understands instructions and will also give instructions to others, like younger siblings or friends.
  • Is receptive to learning another language.
  • Can recognise words in a favourite book.
  • Sings many songs and may even recite a poem.

Tips

  • Avoid using "baby talk" and speak to your child clearly and simply.
  • Ask your child to tell you about his day at bedtime.
  • Ask questions from your child to encourage his speech development even further.
  • Keep giving your child age-appropriate books. It doesn't matter if he cannot read very well or even at all. What matters is that you encourage a love for reading starting young.
  • Teach your child new songs or fun poems.

When to talk to your doctor

If your child

  • Stammers or stutters a lot
  • Does not speak in sentences
  • Cannot speak clearly
  • Refuses to speak at all
  • Loses skills he once had

Health and Nutrition

Your growing child needs a healthy, well-balanced diet. The occasional sugary treat is fine, but these should be few and far between.

Your child needs approximately anywhere between 1500 and 1700 calories to fuel him/her through the day. This is, of course, depending on growth and activity level. Typically, the calorie intake for boys and girls of this age are as follows:

  • Boys:  1700 Kcal/day
  • Girls: 1593 Kcal/day

Your little one’s diet should consist of proteins, carbohydrates, and healthy fats and oils. Grains, dairy, fruits and vegetables should make up a major part of their diet.

Here’s a quick glance at your child’s daily nutritional requirements:

Protein

Your child needs two servings of protein (in total, around 32.4g) each day. One serving equals one to three tablespoons of lean red meat, chicken, or fish, four to five tablespoons of dry legumes and peas, or one egg.

Fruits

Your child needs at least three cups of fruits everyday. One cup of fruit equals one cup of fresh, frozen, or canned fruit, half (1/2) cup dried fruit, half (1/2) of a large apple, one eight- or nine-inch banana, or one medium grapefruit.

If your child wants to drink fruit juice, make sure it’s 100 percent juice without added sugars. Always try to give fresh fruit as canned and dried fruits have a high sugar content. Leaving the skin on adds to your child’s fibre intake.

Vegetables

At this age, your child needs two cups (100g each) of vegetables every day. One cup of vegetables equals one cup of cooked or raw vegetables, two cups of raw leafy greens, one large tomato, or two medium carrots.

Provide a variety of vegetables – including dark green, red and orange, beans and peas, starchy and others – each week. When selecting canned or frozen vegetables, look for options lower in sodium.

Grains

Introduce a minimum of four ounces of grains in your child’s meals every day. One ounce of grains equals one slice of wholegrain bread, one cup of oatmeal, or half (1/2) cup of cooked pasta or cooked cereal.

Choose whole grains, such as whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, popcorn, quinoa, or brown or wild rice. Limit refined grains such as white bread, pasta and rice.

Milk/Dairy

Your child should drink a minimum of 17 to 20 ounces of milk (one to two-and-a-half cups) a day. You may also substitute one cup of milk with one cup of yogurt or soy milk , 1½ ounces of natural cheese (around the size of four stacked dice), or two ounces of processed cheese (around the size of five stacked dice).

In a nutshell, here’s what you child needs every day (refer above for what the amounts look like):

  • Fruits: three cups for boys; three cups for girls
  • Vegetables: two cups for boys; two cups for girls
  • Grains: four ounces for boys; four ounces for girls
  • Proteins: 32.4g for boys; 32.4g for girls
  • Milk: 17-20 ounces for boys; 17-20 ounces for girls
  • Water: 1500 ml for boys; 1500 ml for girls (around six cups)

Here's a quick glance at your child's daily nutritional requirements

Nutrient/Mineral Recommended Daily Amount Food Sources (nutrient/mineral value)
Calcium 1,000mg 2 cups milk (150mg) OR 2 cups yoghurt(207mg) OR 2 slices of cheese  (112mg)
Iron 10mg small bowl of cereal (12mg) OR 1 slice of wholemeal bread (0.9mg) OR a small handful of raisins (0.7mg)
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) 10g of Omega-6, 0.9g of Omega-3 child palm-sized piece of salmon (0.425g) OR 1 hardboiled egg (0.1g) OR a handful of walnuts (2.3g)
Magnesium 130mg Small bowl of all bran cereal (93mg) OR 1 tablespoon of peanut butter (25mg) OR half a banana (16mg)
Vitamin A 0.4mg 3-5 chunks of sweet potato (3.8mg) OR quarter of a bell pepper
Vitamin C 25mg 2 cups fresh orange juice (50mg) OR 6 florets of broccoli (30mg) OR 1 tomato (5mg)
Vitamin E 7mg 28g peanuts (2mg) OR 40g raw mango (0.9mg)
Potassium 3,800mg Half a baked potato (463mg) OR 5 chunks of cantaloupe (208mg) OR a handful of spinach (210mg)
Zinc 5mg child's palm-sized piece of cooked beef (3mg) OR child's palm-sized piece chicken (0.6mg) OR 2 slices cheddar cheese (0.4mg)

Tips:

  • Cut out fizzy drinks and junk food from your child's diet.
  • Teach your child to eat the same food as the rest of the family.
  • Teach good table manners.

By the time your child turns 5 years and 5 months old, he/she would have completed most vaccinations. But to be on the safe side, you can speak to your doctor about flu shots for your child.

Your child may occasionally come down with the common cold and flu. This is completely normal and will help him/her build a stronger immune system. However, its also a good idea to beware of some common illnesses.

Treating Common Illnesses

To manage the three most common medical issues in kids – fever, cough, and cold – try the following:

  • To treat fever: Since your child is still very young, its a good idea to try home remedies, especially if the fever is up to 38°C (100.4°F). You can give him/her plenty of fluids and encourage your kid to rest. You can also place lukewarm compresses to your child’s forehead, armpits and groin areas to help bring the temperature down. If the temperature rises above 38°C (100.4°F) you should bring him/her to the doctor immediately.
  • To treat cough: While coughing is a reflex that clears the throat, it can become a nuisance if accompanied by a runny nose and sneezing. Ideally, you should first try home remedies such as ginger and honey mixed in lukewarm water. You can even ask your kid to drink a minimum of eight glasses of water a day to help ease the discomfort. If your child cough does not ease after three to five days, or turns very phlegmy, bring him/her to the doctor for treatment and management advice.
  • To treat cold: Unless its extremely distressing, avoid taking any OTC medication for common colds. Colds are caused by a virus and so antibiotics will not help. If your child’s cold is accompanied by body aches and very high fever, it could in fact be influenza. You’d need to bring your child to a doctor if so for medical advice.

While some medications for common illnesses can be bought without any prescriptions, your first option of treatment for mild health issues should be simple home remedies.

For example, a child with a  cold and cough should be given extra warm fluids. He or she could gargle with warm salt water for a sore throat remedy. Meanwhile, nasal saline solution will help decongest the nasal passage.

It’s also important to teach and encourage your child to practice good hygiene, especially hand-washing which can help prevent the spread of illnesses.

When to talk to a doctor

If your child,

  • Has a fever over 38 degrees Celsius
  • Has unusual bruises, bumps or rashes
  • Complains constantly of headaches or other aches
  • Has been vomiting or has diarrhoea for more than two days

 

Republished with permission from theAsianparent Singapore

 

Sources: WebMD

READ: 15 smart parenting tips to raise good kids

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